Chapter VII: The Enemy Within


Clarisse Jones, "Light Skin Versus Dark Skin"

bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair"

Nathan McCall, "Faking the Funk: The Middle Class Black Folks of Prince                              George’s County"

Audrey Chapman, "The Great Divide: Male vs. Female"

Farai Chideya, "Homophobia: Hip-Hop’s Black Eye"

Tony Brown, "Becoming a Republican"

Daud Cole, "The Origins and Intentions of Colorism"



Clarisse Jones, "Light Skin Versus Dark Skin"

para 12: "Spike Lee" Internet guide to Spike Lee including links, a biography, and a      career overview.,+Spike: Internet Movie Database’s Spike Lee source.

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bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair"

para 1: "Madame CJ Walker" The Schomburg Center’s brief biography. The National Women’s Hall of Fame Madame CJ Walker source.


para 6: "Manning Marable" Dr. Manning Marable’s official homepage. Dr. Marable’s Columbia University page including a bibliography. Etext of his “Perspectives on Democracy and Socialism.”


para 9: "Toni Morrison" Art and's Morrison resources. The Nobel Prize Internet Archive site, including biographical         information, bibliography and various links. Extensive biography written by Danute Bois.


para 12: "Tina Turner" Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s Ike and Tina Turner source. Tina Turner’s official site.


        "Aretha Franklin" Arista Records’ official Aretha Franklin page. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s Aretha Franklin source. Tribute written by Al Young.

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Nathan McCall, "Faking the Funk: The Middle Class Black Folks of Prince George’s County"

para 5: "Prince George’s County" Prince George’s County web guide. Prince George’s County official government site.


para 17: "Riddick Bowe" Biographical information and a career timeline.


          "Marita Golden" /maritabio.html: A biography, a career overview and a link to her bibliography. /: Homepage of the Hurston-Wright Foundation, founded by Marita Golden. Marita Golden’s official site.


para 19: "The Jeffersons" Internet Movie Database’s Jeffersons source. Fan appreciation site including cast and show histories and the theme song.


para 21: "W.E.B. Du Bois’s 'Talented Tenth'" Etext of Dubois’s essay entitled “The Talented Tenth.” Etext of “Plea to the Talented Tenth” by Langston X Thomas (Baba Abudiifa), in which he critiques the legacy of the Talented Tenth.


para 24: "Martin Luther King, Jr." Homepage of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project. Seattle source providing a biography, audio links, and a photo gallery. Collection of selected reference sources from Louisiana State University Libraries. National Parks Service homepage for Dr. King's boyhood home museum.


           "Malcolm X" The official web site of Malcolm X. Malcolm X tribute site with links to speeches, timeline, and quotations.


para 29: "Sam Fulwood" A review and excerpt of his book Waking from the Dream: My Life in the Black Middle Class. A brief biography and career overview.


para 36: "Tom Wolfe" New York Times collection of articles by and about Tom Wolfe, including excerpts from selected works. Tom Wolfe's official homepage.


para 39: "Reverend Ike" Etext of Boston Globe article written by Brian McGrory. First-hand telling of the Reverend Ike plan, including memorable quotes.


para 46: "Black Entertainment Television" BET homepage.

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Audrey Chapman, "The Great Divide: Male vs. Female"

para 1: "Delores P. Aldridge" Emory University faculty page. CNNfyi interview.


para 3: "U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission" EEOC homepage.

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Farai Chideya, "Homophobia: Hip-Hop’s Black Eye"

para 1: "Dancehall"’s dancehall reggae source. “Dancehall Minded” site, including songs and history.


             "Reggae" “The Gateway to Reggae Music on the Internet,” covering most subgenres, including downloadable songs, artist profiles, an extensive archive of links, and a cultural history.


         "Buju Banton " Official artist site. A brief biography and audio clips.


         "Shabba Ranks" Rolling Stone’s Shabba Ranks source.;h=ent;sz=468x60;ord=16005043096215?: Provides lyrics of selected songs.


         "Tonight Show" Official NBC site.


         "Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)" Official organizational site.


para 3: "Chubb Rock" Rolling's Chubb Rock source.


        "Big Daddy Kane" MCA Records' official artist homepage. Online Hip Hop lyrics from selected Big Daddy Kane songs.


        "Public Enemy’s Flavor Flav" Flavor Flav page on Public Enemy's official site. Rock and Roll Confidential's advice column hosted by Flavor Flav.


        "Ice Cube" News and tour dates. All Music's Ice Cube source. Lyrics to all Ice Cube songs.


para 4: "President Clinton and gays in the military" Collection of links and sources concerning the issue of gays in the military. Transcript of an online forum concerning this issue conducted by PBS. Court transcript of Able v. USA, the first case to challenge President Clinton's "Don't ask, don't tell policy."


        "Axl Rose and Guns N’ Roses" Axl Rose tribute site including a biography and news. Rolling's Guns N' Roses source.


           "R.E.M." Official R.E.M. site. R.E.M. tribute site, including a chronology, lyrics and pictures.


        "CNN" Cable News Network homepage.


        "Vibe" Vibe magazine homepage.


para 5: "Michael Franti and Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy"; Transcript of an interview with Michael Franti conducted by Camo Davi, Adrian Martinez and Giles O’Dell. Review of Hypocrisy Is The Greatest Luxury by Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy.


para 7: "Brand Nubian" Arista Records' official artist site. Rolling's Brand Nubian source. Online lyrics of selected songs.


para 9: "Afrocentrism" and"Molefi Asante" Transcript of his speech "Afrocentrism: The Theory of Social Change." Transcript of his article "Locating a Text: Implications of Afrocentric Theory." Homepage of Molefi Asante and the Asante Infosite.

        "The Isis Papers" Excerpt from The Isis Papers. Excerpt from the Preface of the Isis Papers.


para 10: "Prince" Official site, including news and downloads. Collection of articles, album reviews, and other print articles featuring Prince.


        "Michael Jackson" Sony Music's official artist site. Myths and controversies surrounding Michael Jackson.


        "Nation of Islam" The Final Call online. Official site of the Nation of Islam. Rebuttal of the Nation of Islam.


para 11: "Henry Louis Gates, Jr." Transcript of Gates's interview on C-SPAN's Booknotes. Biographical and professional information. Web resource for Gates's PBS program Wonders of the African World. Homepage of, founded by Gates.


para 12: "Kente" Smithsonian Institution's web companion to their exhibit about the history and use of Kente: "Wrapped in Pride."


para 14: "Source" Source magazine official site.


para 22: "RuPaul" Official site.


para 25: "P. M. Dawn" Official artist site.


        "KRS-One" Homepage of the Temple of Hip Hop, an organization founded by KRS One to promote positive hip hop and document hip hop's history. Collection of interviews, photographs, and a discography. Complete lyrics to the Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One archives.


para 26: "The Crying Game" : Downloadable pdf file of the movie script. Review of the movie by Roger Ebert.

para 28: "k.d. lang" Warner Brothers' official artist site.

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Tony Brown, "Becoming a Republican"

Headnote: "National Public Radio" Official site.


para 1: "Republican Party" Homepage of the Republican National Committee.


para 2: "Emancipation Proclamation" Complete etext.


        "Abraham Lincoln" Abraham Lincoln Research Site. Speeches and writings, a timeline, and historical perspectives.


        "Frederick Douglass" Extensive biography by Sandra Thomas. The National Parks Service's homepage for the Frederick Douglass Memorial. The Indiana University, Purdue University, Indianapolis Frederick Douglass Papers Project           homepage. 2,000 items (16,000 images) that span the years 1841 to 1964 and           relate to Douglass's life as an escaped slave, abolitionist, editor, orator, and public servant.

        "Reconstruction" Full text of Frederick Douglass's speech "Reconstruction." Searchable archive of pamphlets written by African-Americans about the Civil War,
         slavery, and Reconstruction. Collection of links to web sources about the Reconstruction era and policies.


        "13th Amendment" Complete text. Historical context for the Thirteenth Amendment.


        "14th Amendment" Complete text.


        "Civil Rights Act of 1866" Complete text. History of the Civil Rights Act, including contemporary primary sources debating the issues involved.


para 4: "Democratic Party" Homepage of the Democratic party.


        "Jim Crow" Official site of the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State University. A description of various "Jim Crow" laws that existed throughout the
         United States. The Afro-American Almanac's explanation of the origins of "Jim Crow."


        "Depression" A timeline, facts and figures, and an examination of the ongoing debate concerning the causes of the Great Depression. The photography of the Depression era. Compendium of archived New York Times articles concerning the Depression and the aftermath.


        "Franklin Roosevelt" Biography and presidential history. Homepage of the FDR memorial.


        "Dwight Eisenhower" Biography and presidential history. Transcript of Eisenhower's farewell address. Homepage of the Eisenhower Library.


        "Richard Nixon" Biography and presidential history Excerpts of Nixon's Oval Office tapes. Details concerning Nixon's historic trip to China.


para 5: "Lyndon Johnson and his historic civil rights acts" Homepage of the Johnson Library and Museum. Written transcript and audio link to Johnson's address to Congress regarding voting rights. Written transcript and audio link  to Johnson's address to Howard University.


        "Willie Hortonism" Article detailing the Willie Horton advertisement and its producers' connection to President George Bush.,17,300,full,: Information on the 1984 Presidential race and a link to the infamous Willie Horton ad.


para 8: "Ripon Republicans" Homepage of the Ripon Society.


para 10: "Martin Luther King, Jr." Homepage of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project. Seattle source providing a biography, audio links, and a photo gallery. Collection of selected reference sources from Louisiana State University Libraries. National Parks Service homepage for Dr. King's boyhood home museum.


para 12: "Congressional Black Caucus" Homepage of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. Official homepage of the Congressional Black Caucus.


para 15: "Adam Smith" Collection of quotations from Adam Smith. Complete etext of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations.


para 16: "Apollo Theater"'s Apollo Theater source.

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Daud Cole, "The Origins and Intentions of Colorism"

para 2: "speech given by the slaveowner Willie Lynch" Etext of Willy Lynch’s speech.

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