Chapter VII: The Enemy Within

 

Clarisse Jones, "Light Skin Versus Dark Skin"

bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair"

Nathan McCall, "Faking the Funk: The Middle Class Black Folks of Prince                              George’s County"

Audrey Chapman, "The Great Divide: Male vs. Female"

Farai Chideya, "Homophobia: Hip-Hop’s Black Eye"

Tony Brown, "Becoming a Republican"

Daud Cole, "The Origins and Intentions of Colorism"

 

 

Clarisse Jones, "Light Skin Versus Dark Skin"

para 12: "Spike Lee"

http://www.hotwired.com/popfeatures/96/23/lee.guide.html: Internet guide to Spike Lee including links, a biography, and a      career overview.

http://us.imdb.com/Name?Lee,+Spike: Internet Movie Database’s Spike Lee source.

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bell hooks, "Straightening Our Hair"

para 1: "Madame CJ Walker"

http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/Harlem/text/cjwalker.html: The Schomburg Center’s brief biography.

http://www.greatwomen.org/profile.php?id=163: The National Women’s Hall of Fame Madame CJ Walker source.

 

para 6: "Manning Marable"

http://www.manningmarable.net/: Dr. Manning Marable’s official homepage.

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/sipa/RESEARCH/mm247.html: Dr. Marable’s Columbia University page including a bibliography.

http://garnet.berkeley.edu:3333/EDINlist/.left/CoC/.conference/.plenmorn/marable.html: Etext of his “Perspectives on Democracy and Socialism.”

 

para 9: "Toni Morrison"

http://www.artandculture.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/ACLive.woa/wa/artist?id=269: Art and Culture.com's Morrison resources.

http://nobelprizes.com/nobel/literature/1993a.html: The Nobel Prize Internet Archive site, including biographical         information, bibliography and various links.

http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/morrison.html: Extensive biography written by Danute Bois.

 

para 12: "Tina Turner"

http://www.rockhall.com/hof/inductee.asp?id=202: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s Ike and Tina Turner source.

http://www.tina-turner.com: Tina Turner’s official site.

 

        "Aretha Franklin"

http://www.aristarec.com/aristaweb/ArethaFranklin/: Arista Records’ official Aretha Franklin page.

http://www.rockhall.com/hof/inductee.asp?id=106: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s Aretha Franklin source.

http://www.salon.com/people/bc/1999/08/03/aretha/index.html: Tribute written by Al Young.

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Nathan McCall, "Faking the Funk: The Middle Class Black Folks of Prince George’s County"

para 5: "Prince George’s County"

http://home.princegeorges.com/index15.asp: Prince George’s County web guide.

http://www.co.pg.md.us/: Prince George’s County official government site.

 

para 17: "Riddick Bowe"

http://www.ipcress.com/box/bowe.html: Biographical information and a career timeline.

 

          "Marita Golden"

http://www.hurston-wright.org /maritabio.html: A biography, a career overview and a link to her bibliography.

http://www.hurston-wright.org /: Homepage of the Hurston-Wright Foundation, founded by Marita Golden.

http://www.maritagolden.com/: Marita Golden’s official site.

 

para 19: "The Jeffersons"

http://us.imdb.com/Title?0072519: Internet Movie Database’s Jeffersons source.

http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/9176/: Fan appreciation site including cast and show histories and the theme song.

 

para 21: "W.E.B. Du Bois’s 'Talented Tenth'"

http://douglass.speech.nwu.edu/dubo_b05.htm: Etext of Dubois’s essay entitled “The Talented Tenth.”

http://www.cultural-expressions.com/thesis/pleatotenth.htm: Etext of “Plea to the Talented Tenth” by Langston X Thomas (Baba Abudiifa), in which he critiques the legacy of the Talented Tenth.

 

para 24: "Martin Luther King, Jr."

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/: Homepage of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project.

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/mlk/: Seattle Times.com source providing a biography, audio links, and a photo gallery.

http://www.lib.lsu.edu/hum/mlk/: Collection of selected reference sources from Louisiana State University Libraries.

http://www.nps.gov/malu/frames/frames.htm: National Parks Service homepage for Dr. King's boyhood home museum.

 

           "Malcolm X"

http://www.cmgww.com/historic/malcolm/: The official web site of Malcolm X.

http://www.brothermalcolm.net/: Malcolm X tribute site with links to speeches, timeline, and quotations.

 

para 29: "Sam Fulwood"

http://www.canoe.ca/JamBooksFeatures/fulwood.html: A review and excerpt of his book Waking from the Dream: My Life in the Black Middle Class.

http://www.lordly.com/talent/lordly/FulwoodSam.html: A brief biography and career overview.

 

para 36: "Tom Wolfe"

http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/11/05/specials/wolfe.html: New York Times collection of articles by and about Tom Wolfe, including excerpts from selected works.

http://www.tomwolfe.com/index3.htm: Tom Wolfe's official homepage.

 

para 39: "Reverend Ike"

http://www.rickross.com/reference/fund14.html: Etext of Boston Globe article written by Brian McGrory.

http://members.aol.com/SATP2/articles/review_issue/ike.html: First-hand telling of the Reverend Ike plan, including memorable quotes.

 

para 46: "Black Entertainment Television"

http://www.bet.com: BET homepage.

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Audrey Chapman, "The Great Divide: Male vs. Female"

para 1: "Delores P. Aldridge"

http://www.emory.edu/SOC/daldridge/Index.html: Emory University faculty page.

http://fyi.cnn.com/2001/fyi/teachers.tools/03/08/expert.aldridge/index.html: CNNfyi interview.

 

para 3: "U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission"

http://www.eeoc.gov/: EEOC homepage.

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Farai Chideya, "Homophobia: Hip-Hop’s Black Eye"

para 1: "Dancehall"

http://niceup.com/dancehall.html: Niceup.com’s dancehall reggae source.

http://www.dancehallminded.com: “Dancehall Minded” site, including songs and history.

 

             "Reggae"

http://niceup.com: “The Gateway to Reggae Music on the Internet,” covering most subgenres, including downloadable songs, artist profiles, an extensive archive of links, and a cultural history.

 

         "Buju Banton "

http://www.bujubanton.net/: Official artist site.

http://www.reggaejams.com/artists/buju.htm: A brief biography and audio clips.

 

         "Shabba Ranks"

http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/default.asp?oid=5509: Rolling Stone’s Shabba Ranks source.

http://ln.doubleclick.net/adi/tr.ln/member;h=ent;sz=468x60;ord=16005043096215?: Provides lyrics of selected songs.

 

         "Tonight Show"

http://www.nbc.com/tonightshow/: Official NBC site.

 

         "Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)"

http://www.glaad.org/: Official organizational site.

 

para 3: "Chubb Rock"

http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/default.asp?oid=6335: Rolling Stone.com's Chubb Rock source.

 

        "Big Daddy Kane"

http://www.mca.com/mca_records/library/bios/bio.bigdaddy.html: MCA Records' official artist homepage.

http://www.ohhla.com/YFA_kane.html: Online Hip Hop lyrics from selected Big Daddy Kane songs.

 

        "Public Enemy’s Flavor Flav"

http://www.publicenemy.com/soldiers/flavor.php: Flavor Flav page on Public Enemy's official site.

http://www.rockandrollconfidential.com/rapper.htm: Rock and Roll Confidential's advice column hosted by Flavor Flav.

 

        "Ice Cube"

http://www.icecube.org/: News and tour dates.

http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=B88q5g44ttvjz: All Music Guide.com's Ice Cube source.

http://www.btinternet.com/~asghar786/icecubelyrics.html: Lyrics to all Ice Cube songs.

 

para 4: "President Clinton and gays in the military"

http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/scotts/bulgarians/military-pg.html: Collection of links and sources concerning the issue of gays in the military.

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/january00/gays_military.html: Transcript of an online forum concerning this issue conducted by PBS.

http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/scotts/bulgarians/able_v_usa.txt: Court transcript of Able v. USA, the first case to challenge President Clinton's "Don't ask, don't tell policy."

 

        "Axl Rose and Guns N’ Roses"

http://www.crosswinds.net/~warose/home.html: Axl Rose tribute site including a biography and news.

http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/default.asp?afl=fans&oid=344: Rolling Stone.com's Guns N' Roses source.

 

           "R.E.M."

http://www.remhq.com/: Official R.E.M. site.

http://come.to/r-e-m/: R.E.M. tribute site, including a chronology, lyrics and pictures.

 

        "CNN"

http://www.cnn.com: Cable News Network homepage.

 

        "Vibe"

http://www.vibe.com: Vibe magazine homepage.

 

para 5: "Michael Franti and Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy"

http://www.olywa.net/braincase/ideas/michael.html; Transcript of an interview with Michael Franti conducted by Camo Davi, Adrian Martinez and Giles O’Dell.

http://www.seditionists.org/HFh/reviews/041.nj29.html: Review of Hypocrisy Is The Greatest Luxury by Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy.

 

para 7: "Brand Nubian"

http://www.arista.com/aristaweb/BrandNubian/artist_index.html: Arista Records' official artist site.

http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/default.asp?oid=4790: Rolling Stone.com's Brand Nubian source.

http://www.ohhla.com/YFA_brand.html: Online lyrics of selected songs.

 

para 9: "Afrocentrism" and"Molefi Asante"

http://www.asante.net/articles/guadalupe-asante.html: Transcript of his speech "Afrocentrism: The Theory of Social Change."

http://www.asante.net/articles/LocatingText.html: Transcript of his article "Locating a Text: Implications of Afrocentric Theory."

http://www.asante.net/load01.swf: Homepage of Molefi Asante and the Asante Infosite.

        "The Isis Papers"

http://www.blackmind.com/isis4.htm: Excerpt from The Isis Papers.

http://www.geocities.com/athens/6177/isispapers.html: Excerpt from the Preface of the Isis Papers.

 

para 10: "Prince"

http://www.npgmusicclub.com/: Official site, including news and downloads.

http://princetext.tripod.com/: Collection of articles, album reviews, and other print articles featuring Prince.

 

        "Michael Jackson"

http://www.michaeljackson.com/splash-f.html: Sony Music's official artist site.

http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Stage/2943/: Myths and controversies surrounding Michael Jackson.

 

        "Nation of Islam"

http://www.finalcall.com/: The Final Call online.

http://www.noi.org/: Official site of the Nation of Islam.

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/4222/noi.html: Rebuttal of the Nation of Islam.

 

para 11: "Henry Louis Gates, Jr."

http://www.booknotes.org/transcripts/50064.htm: Transcript of Gates's interview on C-SPAN's Booknotes.

http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/gates/index.html: Biographical and professional information.

http://www.pbs.org/wonders/: Web resource for Gates's PBS program Wonders of the African World.

http://www.africana.com/: Homepage of Africana.com, founded by Gates.

 

para 12: "Kente"

http://www.nmafa.si.edu/exhibits/kente/top.htm: Smithsonian Institution's web companion to their exhibit about the history and use of Kente: "Wrapped in Pride."

 

para 14: "Source"

http://www.thesource.com: Source magazine official site.

 

para 22: "RuPaul"

http://www.rupaul.com/: Official site.

 

para 25: "P. M. Dawn"

http://www.pmdawn.net/: Official artist site.

 

        "KRS-One"

http://www.templeofhiphop.com/: Homepage of the Temple of Hip Hop, an organization founded by KRS One to promote positive hip hop and document hip hop's history.

http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Lounge/9059/index.html: Collection of interviews, photographs, and a discography.

http://www.ohhla.com/YFA_krs.html: Complete lyrics to the Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One archives.

 

para 26: "The Crying Game"

http://scifiscripts.name2host.com/msol/cryinggame.pdf : Downloadable pdf file of the movie script.

http://www.suntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/1992/12/795409.html: Review of the movie by Roger Ebert.

para 28: "k.d. lang"

http://www.wbr.com/kdlang/: Warner Brothers' official artist site.

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Tony Brown, "Becoming a Republican"

Headnote: "National Public Radio"

http://www.npr.org: Official site.

 

para 1: "Republican Party"

http://www.rnc.org: Homepage of the Republican National Committee.

 

para 2: "Emancipation Proclamation"

http://www.emancipationproclamation.com: Complete etext.

 

        "Abraham Lincoln"

http://members.aol.com/RVSNorton/Lincoln2.html: Abraham Lincoln Research Site.

http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln.html: Speeches and writings, a timeline, and historical perspectives.

 

        "Frederick Douglass"

http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/douglass/HOME.html: Extensive biography by Sandra Thomas.

http://www.nps.gov/frdo/freddoug.html: The National Parks Service's homepage for the Frederick Douglass Memorial.

http://www.iupui.edu/~douglass/: The Indiana University, Purdue University, Indianapolis Frederick Douglass Papers Project           homepage.

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/doughtml/doughome.html: 2,000 items (16,000 images) that span the years 1841 to 1964 and           relate to Douglass's life as an escaped slave, abolitionist, editor, orator, and public servant.

        "Reconstruction"

http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book5.htm: Full text of Frederick Douglass's speech "Reconstruction."

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aapchtml/: Searchable archive of pamphlets written by African-Americans about the Civil War,
         slavery, and Reconstruction.

http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/reconstruction/: Collection of links to web sources about the Reconstruction era and policies.

 

        "13th Amendment"

http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/constitution/amdt13.html: Complete text.

http://members.tripod.com/~greatamericanhistory/gr02011.htm: Historical context for the Thirteenth Amendment.

 

        "14th Amendment"

http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/constitution/amdt14.html: Complete text.

 

        "Civil Rights Act of 1866"

http://lawbooksusa.com/cconlaw/civilrightsacts.htm: Complete text.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivil1866.htm: History of the Civil Rights Act, including contemporary primary sources debating the issues involved.

 

para 4: "Democratic Party"

http://www.democrats.org: Homepage of the Democratic party.

 

        "Jim Crow"

http://www.ferris.edu/news/jimcrow/: Official site of the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State University.

http://www.nps.gov/malu/documents/jim_crow_laws.htm A description of various "Jim Crow" laws that existed throughout the
         United States.

http://www.toptags.com/aama/docs/jcrow.htm: The Afro-American Almanac's explanation of the origins of "Jim Crow."

 

        "Depression"

http://www.amatecon.com/greatdepression.html: A timeline, facts and figures, and an examination of the ongoing debate concerning the causes of the Great Depression.

http://chnm.gmu.edu/fsa/: The photography of the Depression era.

http://www.nytimes.com/library/financial/index-1929-crash.html: Compendium of archived New York Times articles concerning the Depression and the aftermath.

 

        "Franklin Roosevelt"

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/fr32.html: Biography and presidential history.

http://www.nps.gov/fdrm/: Homepage of the FDR memorial.

 

        "Dwight Eisenhower"

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/de34.html: Biography and presidential history.

http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm: Transcript of Eisenhower's farewell address.

http://www.eisenhower.utexas.edu/: Homepage of the Eisenhower Library.

 

        "Richard Nixon"

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/rn37.html: Biography and presidential history

http://www.c-span.org/executive/presidential/nixon.asp: Excerpts of Nixon's Oval Office tapes.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/: Details concerning Nixon's historic trip to China.

 

para 5: "Lyndon Johnson and his historic civil rights acts"

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/: Homepage of the Johnson Library and Museum.

http://www.hpol.org/lbj/voting/: Written transcript and audio link to Johnson's address to Congress regarding voting rights.

http://www.hpol.org/lbj/civil-rights/: Written transcript and audio link  to Johnson's address to Howard University.

 

        "Willie Hortonism"

http://www.mediaresearch.org/news/mediawatch/1992/mw19921101jca.html: Article detailing the Willie Horton advertisement and its producers' connection to President George Bush.

http://www.ammi.org/cgi-bin/video/years.cgi?1988,17,300,full,: Information on the 1984 Presidential race and a link to the infamous Willie Horton ad.

 

para 8: "Ripon Republicans"

http://www.riponsoc.org/: Homepage of the Ripon Society.

 

para 10: "Martin Luther King, Jr."

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/: Homepage of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project.

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/mlk/: Seattle Times.com source providing a biography, audio links, and a photo gallery.

http://www.lib.lsu.edu/hum/mlk/: Collection of selected reference sources from Louisiana State University Libraries.

http://www.nps.gov/malu/frames/frames.htm: National Parks Service homepage for Dr. King's boyhood home museum.

 

para 12: "Congressional Black Caucus"

http://www.cbcfonline.org/: Homepage of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation.

http://www.house.gov/ebjohnson/cbcmain.htm: Official homepage of the Congressional Black Caucus.

 

para 15: "Adam Smith"

http://www.adamsmith.org.uk/smith/quotes.htm: Collection of quotations from Adam Smith.

http://www.bibliomania.com/2/1/65/112/frameset.html: Complete etext of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations.

 

para 16: "Apollo Theater"

http://www.africana.com/Utilities/Content.html?&../cgi-bin/banner.pl?banner=Arts&../Articles/tt_004.htm: Africana.com's Apollo Theater source.

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Daud Cole, "The Origins and Intentions of Colorism"

para 2: "speech given by the slaveowner Willie Lynch"

http://www.ehhs.cmich.edu/~rlandrum/lynch.htm: Etext of Willy Lynch’s speech.

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