(CRN10269/10270-702; CRN-12486/12487--404)
EJH ROOM #0337 Lectures #236 Laboratories
(TUESDAY AND THURSDAY) 12:40 P.M. - 3:30 P.M.

Dr. Clarence M. Lee

Dr. R. Nesbitt and Dr. M. Ashraf will give major lectures in the course. Dr. J.Scott, Dr. D.R. Lincicome, Professor Garnett Henley, Dr. Eba Ongele, and Dr.P. Kim may present special lectures/seminars

. Laboratory Instructor
Mr. Emmanuel Jingwi, B.S., M.S. (Ph.D student)


This course covers the major topics in Animal Parasitology (Protozoa, Nematodes, and Platyhelminthes) and exposes students to both classical and modern parasitology. The parasites discussed in this course provide research tools to understand many scientific processes (biochemical pathways, regulation of mechanisms for drug resistance, immune and mitochondrial processes during parasitic life cycles, gene regulation, molecular development, and molecular evolution). Exercises and demonstrations of various parasites will be held during the laboratory portion of this course.

This course will also expose the students to aspects of scientific writing. Technical-writing courses introduce some of the most important aspects of writing in science and technology — in other words, the kind of writing that scientists do as a part of their regular work. Common types of reports, journals, abstracts, special format items such as techniques for reporting laboratory results, and methods for reporting results to an audience are studied.


1. Burton J. Bogitsh and Thomas C. Cheng, 1998. Human Parasitology,
Academic Press, New York, New York

2. A Color Atlas of Parasitology. John T. Sullivan, 2002 University of San Francisco (


1. Basiro Davey, 1991. Immunology Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
2. William R. Clark, 2000.Experimental Foundations of Modern Immunology John Wiley and Sons, New York
3. Marilyn F. Moriarty 1997. Writing Science through Critical Thinking. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Massachusetts
4 Donald Price, 1994. Procedure Manual for Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
5. Diana C. Reep, 1991. Technical Writings: Principles, Strategies and Readings. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Massachusetts
6. Other selective references and handouts will be given out during the lectures and laboratories.

* Students are not required to buy reference books(1-5). Many of these books, however, will be excellent for your personal library and will be useful to you in this course.


January 6 January 11
Lecture/Lab Preparing a Research Paper/Abstract
Introduction, Lab Orientation Using the Tools of the Library

January 13 January 18
An introduction to Parasitism Selective Intestinal Nematodes

January 20 January 25
Intestintal Nematodes and other selective Blood and Tissue Nematodes

January 27
Intestinal and Hepatic Flukes

February 1 February 3
Pulmonary and other selective flukes Tapeworms

February 8 February 10
Extraintestinal Larval Tapeworms Paper Discussion #1
Journals Collected

February 15 February 17
Lecture Exam #1 Immunological Spectra in Parasitic
Lab Exam #1 Diseases

February 22 February 24
T-cells and their functions Humoral and Cellular Immunity
B- cells and their functions

March 1 March 3
Immunological Tolerance Antigenic Variations
Regulation of Immune response In Parasitic Organisms

March 8 March 10
Paper Discussion #2 Lecture Exam II
Journals Collected

March 12-20
Spring Break

March 22 March 24
Hemoflagellates Other related organisms

March 29 March 31
Leishmaniasis Other Selective Organisms

April 5 April 7
Malaria Malaria

April 12 April 14
Malaria and selective organisms Paper Discussion # 3

April 19 April 21
Lecture Exam III/ Lab Exam II Research-Group presentation
Journal Collected
Collection of all research assignments

April 26 April 28
Final Exam for Deadline for submitting grades
Prospective Graduates For prospective Graduates-3:00p.m.

May 6
Final Exam


JANUARY 11 Nematodes
13 Nematodes
18 Nematodes
20 Blood and tissue Nematodes
25 Blood and tissue Nematodes
27 Blood and intestinal Flukes

FEBRUARY 1 Other related organisms/experiment
3 Cestodes/experiment
8 Cestodes/experiment
10 A review of the helminthes/experiment
15 Experiment
17 Experiment
22 Experiment
24 Experiment

MARCH 1 Experiment
3 Experiment
8 Experiment
10 Finalizing the experiment

MARCH 12-20 Spring recess

22 Protozoa
24 Protozoa
29 Lumen dwelling protozoa
31 Blood and tissue protozoa

APRIL 5 Blood and tissue protozoa
7 Blood and tissue sporozoa
12 Blood and tissue sporozoa
14 A review of the protozoa
19 Lab Exam II
21 Group presentation of research
26 Final exam for prospective graduates

Items Needed for Laboratory

1. Laboratory Coat
2. Soap


1. Lecture Examination I February 15
2. Lecture Examination II March 10
3. Lecture Examination III April 19
4. Final Lecture Examination May 6 (Regular) Noon-2:00p.m.
April 26 (Prospective Graduates)
5. Quizzes (10 minutes unannounced quizzes may be given at beginning of class). These cannot be made up if missed.
6. Lab Examination I February 15
7. Lab Examination II April 19

Please be reminded that the last day to withdraw from any course is April 8, 2005.


One ”Research Paper” is to be prepared by all graduate members of the class. This essay is to be a critical analysis of the significant advancements of developments of selected fields for the period of 1990 to date. The essay may be on one of the following topics

1. Parasites and Cell Signaling
2. Role of Iron Metabolism during Parasitic Infections
3 Leishmaniasis: Genetic Analysis of Virulence Factors
4. Genetics and Transformation of Toxoplasma gondii

To prepare this essay, each student must first compile a list of references relating to the subject. These references should be alphabetically arranged and written in the form recommended and used by the journal, Experimental Parasitology, and/or the Style Manual of Biological Editors.

All essays must be typewritten, double-spaced with adequate margins on all sides. They must be thoroughly edited by the student for accuracy before submission to the instructor. The outline should be presented on February 10, 2005. The first draft should be presented on March 8, 2005. The final paper should be presented on April 21, 2005.


Each Student will be asked to select a recent published paper in journals such as Immunology, Experimental Parasitology, Journal of Parasitology, or American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The abstracts are restricted to articles written between 2001-2005. The three reports will be on the following subjects:

Report I Studies related to Nematodes
Report II Immune Reactions to Parasites
Report III Studies related to Protozoa or Arthropods

As you prepare for your abstracts, please follow these guidelines:

1. A well prepared abstract enables readers to identify the Basic Content of a document quickly and accurately, to determine its relevance to their interests and thus to decide whether they need to read the document in its entirety.
2. The abstract should not exceed 300 words and should be designed to define clearly what is dealt with in the paper (in your own words).
3. The abstract should:
a. State the principal objectives and scope of the investigation(What question did the authors ask? What was done before?)
b .Describe the methodology employed (how the experiment was done) What methods did the authors use to answer the question?
c. Summarize the results, and state the principal conclusion; What did their results suggest? What were their conclusions?

d. List the principal references used in the publication.
All abstracts should be typed and submitted at least one week (5 class days) prior to the presentation.


A journal of commentary is required of each student. A minimum of three pages per week is expected. A date should be placed on each entry. For the first half of the semester, specific topics will be assigned for journal coverage. For the second half, you will be asked to select the material for the journal entries.

Use a spiral notebook measuring 11 x 8 ½ inches (for example, at the HU Bookstore, model #33-390 has 80 sheets of narrow ruled paper) for your entries. All entries must be in ink.

Journal will be examined on correct usage of Standard English. Misspelling and grammatical errors must be corrected. Content and clarity of expression are important. Neatness is expected also. Some topics have been chosen to get you started. These entries will require some thought and time to complete them. As, mentioned earlier, they should be a minimum of three pages.

Week 1 A recent article on parasites (references should be cited)
Week 2 Discussion of the Nobel Prizes in the Sciences for Year 2004
Week 3 Summarize an article on Lyme disease (references should be included)
Week 4 Summarize an article on opportunistic infections (references should be cited)
Week 5 A summary of a chapter from a book/article on the molecular basis
for pathogenesis or host defenses
Week 6 Invasion Mechanisms in Parasitic Organisms (references should be included)
Weeks 6-14 Entries of your own choice
At specified intervals, the journals will be collected. The final collection date will be April 21.


During a twelve to fourteen week period, the class will be divided into groups. Each group will participate in a research project involving Trypanosoma musculi. The details of this experiment will be presented during the laboratory. At the completion of the experiment, each student must write a scientific report (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, references). On April 15, the groups will present their research. The written report is due on April 20.

Grade Requirements
First Major Examination 100 100-90 A
Second Major Examination 100 80-89 B
Third Major Examination 100 70-79 C
Quizzes (all quizzes will be averaged) 100 60-69 D
Essay (graduate students only)* 200 below 60 F
Oral Reports (all reports will be averaged) 100
Lab Examination I 100
Lab Examination II 100 Final Lecture Examination 200
Journal 100
Laboratory Research Report 100
TOTAL POINTS 1100-1300*
Grading (the traditional grading scale based on 100% will be used)


Conferences can be arranged by contacting the instructors ( Dr. Lee, 202-2382511;
or by email -; Dr. Nesbitt, 202-8069186 or email ; Dr. Ashraf, 202-8066963 or email; Mr. Jingwi, 202-8066948 or email )


Acta Parasitologica formerly Acta Parasitologica Polonica founded in 1953 by the Polish Parasitological Society
American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (AAVP)
American Society of Parasitologists
American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (ASTMH) the principal organization in the United States representing scientists, clinicians and others with interests in the prevention and control of tropical diseases through research and education
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology Taylor & Francis
Australian Society for Parasitology (ASP) objectives are to: foster association of persons interested in parasitology, foster establishment and proper curation of collections of Australian parasites, and promote investigation and advance knowledge of parasitology by facilitating interaction and discussion
Biosystematics & the US National Parasite Collection maintained by the Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Maryland, completed its first century of service to parasitologists in 1992
British Society for Parasitology (BSP) aims to advance the study of parasitology, promote interest and discussion, aid training and education, and disseminate information about recent advances through its regular newsletter and meetings
Canadian Society of Zoologists Parasitology Section established in 1974 to promote and advance the study of parasitic organisms and facilitate the exchange of information among parasitologists in Canada, the only national organization of parasitologists in Canada
Carlo Denegri Foundation Italy promotes study of infectious, tropical, and parasitic diseases in Torino and the surrounding Piemonte region, includes an Atlas of Medical Parasitology
Careers in Parasitology from the American Society of Parasitologists
CELLS alive! various links
Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology (CAEP) University of Keele UK
Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease Department of Zoology University of Oxford UK
Centre for Parasite Biology (CPB) an organisation within the University of Edinburgh that acts as a focus for teaching and research in all aspects of parasitology in the Edinburgh area
Charles University (Prague) Department of Parasitology and Hydrobiology
Czech Society for Parasitology members of the Society assert their activity in basic and applied research, teaching at universities, hygienic service, diagnostic laboratories with human as well as veterinary orientation and other places where knowledge of parasites is required
Daniel Shapiro's Zoonosis Page
Daphnia-Parasite Picture Gallery
Department of Parasitology Chiang Mai University
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Parasitologie (DGP) the German Society for Parasitology, a non-profit making society based in Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Diagnosing medical parasites through coprological techniques online book
Directory of Parasitologists
Directory of Parasitologists in Canada originated from the hard-copy publiction, Directory of Parasitologists in Canada, Second Edition 1996, published under the auspices of the Biological Survey of Canada, the Canadian Museum of Nature, and the Canadian Society of Zoologists
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms contents and abstracts
DPDx — CDC Parasitology Diagnostic Web Site Division of Parasitic Diseases at the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
Dugesia the anatomy of the turbellarian flatworm Dugesia tigrina, commonly known as planaria (part of online university biology course)
Ecological Database of the World's Insect Pathogens (EDWIP) information on fungi, viruses, mollicutes and bacteria infectious in insects, mites and related arthropods, Center for Economic Entomology Illinois Natural History Survey
Ecto- and Endo-Parasites a directory of academic links to ecto- and endo-parasites in medical and veterinary parasitology, Southampton University UK
Ectoparasites and Endoparasites a directory of academic links to Ectoparasites and Endoparasites, Medicine and Veterinary Science
Ege University Medical Faculty Department of Parasitology
European Federation of Parasitologists founded in Jablonna, Warszawa, Poland in 1996, to promote the exchange of knowledge and the coordination of scientific research in the field of parasitology in Europe
Experimental Parasitology Academic Press
Folia Parasitologica Institute of Parasitology, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic
Harold V. Manter Laboratory of Parasitologyh and Division of Parasitology University of Nebraska State Museum
Hebrew University — Hadassah Medical School Department of Parasitology
Helminthologia Slovak Academy of Sciences
Helminthological Abstracts CABI
Helminthological Society of Washington founded in 1910 to foster and discuss current research on animal parasites, primarily but not limited to the helminths of humans, domestic and wild animals, and plants
Homepage of Parasites a place for exchange of ideas, software, sites and opinions about parasites, especially evolution and systematics
Host-Parasite Database Natural History Museum, London — outlines criteria for searching database maintained in Parasitic Worms Division, with sample searches
Host-Parasite Evolution Research Group University of Basel, Switzerland
Hungarian Society of Parasitologists (HSP) Magyar Parazitológusok Társasága (MPT)
Hypodermosis database bibliographic database created by the library service of the Unit for Avian Pathology and Parasitology of the INRA Research Centre of Tours-Nouzilly
Indian Society for Parasitology
Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish synopsis, Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Institute of Arthropodology and Parasitology (IAP) an interdepartmental organization at Georgia Southern University, where the US National Tick Collection is housed
Institute of Parasitology Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
International Ichthyoparasitology Newsletter
International Journal for Parasitology see also journal homepage
Japanese Journal of Parasitology in future to be published by Elsevier as Parasitology International
Japanese Society of Parasitology
Journal of Helminthology CABI
Journal of Parasitic Diseases Indian Society for Parasitology, contents to latest issue
Journal of Parasitology American Society of Parasitologists; also available via AllenPress
Korean Journal of Parasitology
Korean Society for Parasitology founded in 1959 in Seoul, to pursue the improvement of knowledge on parasites and parasitic diseases and exchange scientific accomplishment with foreign scientists
Laboratories de Biologie Parasitaire, Protistologie, Helminthologie Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris
Laboratoire de Taxonomie des Vecteurs ORSTOM, France, studies the taxonomic status of hematophagus insects (mosquitoes, horse flies, sand flies, biting midges, black flies, tse-tse flies, ticks, etc...) and creates data processing tools for vector identification
Laboratory of Parasitology Zoological Institute St Petersburg
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Division of Parasite & Vector Biology
Louisiana State University Medical Center New Orleans Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology
Malaria Foundation International provides a gateway to internet resources concerning global problems with malaria
McGill University Institute of Parasitology Montreal, Canada
Microbiology and Immunology Online — Parasitology University of South Carolina School of Medicine, textbook derived from medical microbiology course lectures
Molecular Analysis of Symbiosis research in molecular analysis of symbiotic relationships
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Elsevier — journal of investigations on molecular biology & biochemistry of parasitic protozoa & helminths and interactions with their hosts
Molecular Parasitology Network portal site
OnchoNET onchocerciasis information repository
ParaDis parasites and distribution - a negative binomial distribution software, running on PC/DOS
Parasite journal of the Société Française de Parasitologie
Parasite Genome Laboratory University of Cambridge UK
Parasite Genomes Web Site to provide information on advances in the various parasite genome projects and links to the parasite genome "networks"
Parasitic Diseases website MIC-KIBIC at the Karolinska Institute
parasite-genome discussion list Mailbase mailing list servicing researchers involved in the computing aspects of parasite genome research, in particular the development of ACeDB-based databases for analysis and display of genome information
Parasite Immunology an international journal devoted to research on parasite immunology in the general sense, with emphasis placed on how hosts control parasites, and the immunopathological reactions which take place in the course of parasitic infections
Parasites and Parasitological Resources Ohio State University
Parasites on the Web links to parasite internet sites
Parasitologia al Dia official publication of Sociedad Chilena de Parasitología y de la Federación Latinoamericana de Parasitólogos (FLAP)
Parasitological Research Groups and Societies world wide list by continent
Parasitological URLs David Gibson's list of web resources of interest to parasitologists
Parasitology Cambridge University Press
PARASITOLOGY/bionet.parasitology Newsgroup Archive
Parasitology Diagnostic Services Oklahoma State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Parasitology in Düsseldorf Heinrich-Heine University
Parasitology Group Homepage Aberystwyth University, Wales, research group covers a broad range of parasitological research from the molecular to ecosystem level
Parasitology Images List a collection of images of medically important parasites
Parasitology International international journal of the Japanese Society of Parasitology (formerly Japanese Journal of Parasitology), see also journal homepage
Parasitology News published by the British Society for Parastiology
Parasitology Online Elsevier, group of specialized journals for parasitologists
Parasitology Research Springer
Parasitology Research Group University of Glasgow
Parasitology resources Pasteur Institute
Parasitology at University Erlangen-Nurnberg
Phytoparasitica Israel Journal of Plant Protection Sciences uuu
Plasmodium Genome Database a relational database for sequence retrieval etc of Plasmodium falciparum genome information
Quantitative Parasitology statistical tools to describe parasitic infection of a sample of hosts
QUT Parasitology Pages Queensland University of Technology
Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (RSTMH) British organisation promoting health and advancement of the study, control and prevention of disease in man and other animals in warm climates, facilitation of discussion and exchange of information among those who are interested in tropical diseases, and promotion of the work of those interested in these objectives
SciCentral: Best Parasitology Directories
Société Française de Parasitologie French Society of Parasitology — created in 1992 to help to achieve parasitology progress and scientific exchange among researchers, and to promote a comparative parasitology
Society for Vector Ecology concerned with all aspects of the biology, ecology, and control of arthropod vectors
SYMBIOSIS-RESEARCH BIOSCI/bionet.biology.symbiosis newsgroup archives
Systematic Parasitology Kluwer Academic Publishers
Trends in Parasitology (formerly Parasitology Today), see also journal homepage
Trypanosomiasis and Land Use in Africa (TALA) Oxford University Dept of Zoology
Trypnews On-line an initiatives to involve colleagues worldwide and exchange information in a dynamic way as well as to strengthen the Trypnet (Hemoparasite Information Network)
Tulane University Department of Tropical Medicine
Turkish Society for Parasitology (TSP)
University of Berne Institute of Parasitology Switzerland
University of Queensland Department of Microbiology & Parasitology, Australia
Veterinary Parasitology journal covering aspects of protozoology, helminthology & entomology of interest in animal health & veterinary sciences, see also journal homepage
Warwick University Ecology and Epidemiology
WHO Tropical Diseases Resources
World of Parasites McGill University, find out which parasites are found around the world, what diseases they cause, and see pictures of them
World Federation of Parasitologists (WFP)
WormLearn an online parasitology information package
Parasite Portfolio

In order to check assignments, prior to each class, please plan to check your email on a regular basis.

K. Statement on ADA Procedures

Howard University is committed to providing an educational environment that is accessible to all students. In accordance with the policy, students in need of accommodations due to disability should contact the Office of the Dean for Special Students Services for verification and determination of reasonable accommodations as soon as possible after admission to the University, or at the beginning of each semester. The Dean of the Office of Special Services can be reached at 202 806-2420.